Devi is the great goddess of the Hindus,the consort of Shiva and
she is worshiped in various forms corresponding to her two aspects:
benevolence and fierceness. She is Uma, "light"; Gauri, "yellow
or brilliant"; Parvati, "the mountaineer"; and Jagatmata, "the-mother-of-the-world"
in her milder guise. The terrible emanations are Durga "the
inaccessible"; Kali, "the black"; Chandi, "the fierce";
and Bhairavi, "the terrible."
Descent of the Goddess
Durga, a beautiful warrior seated upon a tiger, was the first appearance of
the great goddess. The circumstance of her miraculous arrival was the
tyranny of the monster-demon Mahishasur, who through terrific austerities
had acquired invincible strength. The gods were afraid of this water-buffalo
bull because neither Vishnu nor Shiva could prevail against him. It seemed
that the joint energy of Shakti was only capable of vanquishing Mahisha, and
so it was the eighteen-armed Durga who went out to do battle.
She went to battle on her ferocious mount lion, armed with the weapons
given to her by the other Gods. Durga is one of the angry and aggressive
aspects of the goddess Shakti, whose role in Hindu mythology was to fight
and conquer demons and also personify the Sakti or female aspect of any male
deity. In the battle, she fought and killed the evil Mahishasura and
restored heaven to the Gods. Since then the goddess is invoked for
protection from the powers of evil. Durga Puja is observed in her honor, to
celebrate her victory over evil.
She has been worshiped from about 400 AD, but probably earlier, to the
present. Her literary references are chiefly the Ramayana and Mahabharata,
epic and Puranic texts, and she is mentioned by name in Vedic literature. In
general, Durga is regarded in northern India as the gentle bride epitomizing
family unity while in southern India she is revered more in her warrior